what is the petrified wood?
The petrified wood is a type of fossil, that is a wood fossil in which all organic materials have been replaced by minerals; they are usually a type of silicates, such as quarts, manganese and etc. But, on the other hand, the original structure of the wood is retained.
When wood was buried under layers of the sediments, the fossil process took place underground. Water containing a lot of minerals enters the plan cells, meanwhile, lignin and cellulose became decayed, then they were replaced by stones.
Literally, the petrified wood means a wood turning into a stone. The word “petrified” is acquired from the Greek word “petro”, which means coral or stone.
The petrification process occurs underground when the wood is buried under the sediments and begins to be preserved because it lacks of oxygen. The rich water minerals flow through the sediments storing minerals in plant cells and in line with the decay of lignin and plan celluloses, then the stone formation arouse.
So, it is no wonder if the petrified wood is found in the soil, because its process formation is indeed in the soil. But, sometimes they can be found in the deep of the rivers.
There is a very basic characteristic of the petrified wood that have been found in the rivers, it is harder and even parts of the barks or tree skins do not have lime as if it have had someone polish it well. It could be happened because of the friction between the petrified wood and sand or another rock which have happened in the river for millions years. On the other hand, the petrified wood found in the soil is more interesting than the petrified wood found in the river,because of the motives and the colors inside the stone.
Elements such as manganese, iron and copperin the water/soil during the process of perminalization produced various colors. Pure quarts crystals are colorless, but when the contaminants are added during the process, they will become yellow, red, beige and etc.
The following list is the contaminant elements and the colors that they produce:
•Iron Oxide-Red, brown, and yellow
The petrified wood can maintain the overall structure of the original wood. Structures such as the tree year rings and various tissues are the forms that are often observed.
The petrified wood has a 7-Mohs hardness level. It is the same as the quarts.
Generally, the petrified wood can be found in Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, India, the United States, Brazil, Canda, Greece and Libya.